Open Problems In Network Security

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Introduction
Data minimization is a fundamental privacy principle which requires that applications and services should use only the minimal amount of personal data necessary to carry out an online transaction. A key technology for enforcing the principle of data minimization for online applications are anonymous credentials [1], [2], [5]. In contrast to traditional electronic credentials, which require the disclosure of all attributes of the credential to a service provider when performing an online transaction, anonymous credentials let users reveal any possible subset of attributes of the credential, characteristics of these attributes, or prove possession of the credential without revealing the credential itself, thus providing users with the right of anonymity and the protection of their privacy.

Even though Microsoft’s U-Prove and IBM’s Idemix anonymous credential technologies are currently introduced into commercial and open source systems and products, the design of easily understandable interfaces for introducing these concepts to end users is a major challenge, since end users are not yet familiar with this rather new and complex technology and no obvious real-world analogies exist. Besides, users have grown accustomed to believe that their identity cannot remain anonymous when acting online and have learned from experience or word of mouth that unwanted consequences can come from distributing their information to some services providers on the Internet.

In other words, people do not yet posses the right mental models regarding how anonymous credentials work and how anonymous credentials can be used to, for example, protect their personal information.

In order to tackle the challenge of designing interfaces that convey the principle of data minimization with the use of anonymous credentials, we have, within the scope of the EU FP7 project PrimeLife1 and the Swedish U-PrIM project2, investigated the way mental models of average users work with regards to anonymous credentials and have tried to evoke their correct mental models with various experiments [10].

In this article, we first provide background information on the concepts of anonymous credentials and mental models and then present previous related work. Then, we describe the experiments that were carried out using three different approaches, and present the analyses and interpretations of the collected
data. Finally, we provide conclusions in the last section.

Table of Contents

  • I Assisting Users
  • Evoking Comprehensive Mental Models of Anonymous Credentials … 1
  • Erik W¨astlund, Julio Angulo, and Simone Fischer-H¨ubner
  • Towards Usable Interfaces for Proof Based Access Rights on Mobile
  • Devices … 15
  • Marcel Heupel and Dogan Kesdogan
  • Commercial Home Assistance (eHealth) Services … 28
  • Milica Milutinovic, Koen Decroix, Vincent Naessens, and
  • Bart De Decker
  • II Malware Detection
  • Detecting Computer Worms in the Cloud … 43
  • Sebastian Biedermann and Stefan Katzenbeisser
  • Efficient and Stealthy Instruction Tracing and Its Applications in
  • Automated Malware Analysis: Open Problems and Challenges … 55
  • Endre Bangerter, Stefan B¨uhlmann, and Engin Kirda
  • Challenges for Dynamic Analysis of iOS Applications … 65
  • Martin Szydlowski, Manuel Egele, Christopher Kruegel, and
  • Giovanni Vigna
  • III Saving Energy
  • Energy-Efficient Cryptographic Engineering Paradigm … 78
  • Marine Minier and Raphael C.-W. Phan
  • VIII Table of Contents
  • IV Policies
  • Towards a Similarity Metric for Comparing Machine-Readable Privacy
  • Policies … 89
  • Inger Anne Tøndel and ˚Asmund Ahlmann Nyre
  • Abstract Privacy Policy Framework: Addressing Privacy Problems
  • in SOA … 104
  • Laurent Bussard and Ulrich Pinsdorf
  • Flexible and Dynamic Consent-Capturing … 119
  • Muhammad Rizwan Asghar and Giovanni Russello
  • V Problems in the Cloud
  • Towards User Centric Data Governance and Control in the Cloud … 132
  • Stephan Groß and Alexander Schill
  • Securing Data Provenance in the Cloud … 145
  • Muhammad Rizwan Asghar, Mihaela Ion, Giovanni Russello, and
  • Bruno Crispo
  • Author Index … 161

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